When we talk about being self sufficient, we might picture a country house that recycles rain water with solar panels on the roof. We conjure up an image of a group of people doing it themselves, off the grid. But now that we know how our urban populations are projected to swell in numbers, you might find yourself asking if this kind of picture of sustainable living translates to a metropolitan lifestyle.
In our last article we covered the use of allotments as a way to be more self reliant in food production. But when there’s no access to sites like these, what else can be done? Is the onus on us as individuals to find our own ways of producing food, or are there groups out there creating new opportunities for growth in the city..?
As in any industry, when there’s an imbalance between supply and demand, grassroots movements and individuals tend to create their own path to fulfilment. In the first instance, let’s look at the groups and organisations intervening in urban areas to turn empty space into ad-hoc allotments and community gardens.
In London lies one of the best examples of this type of intervention. Between 2009 and 2012, a small group of architects created a programme to convert neglected and unused spaces on inner city housing estates into environments that now provide neighbourhoods with the most basic of requirements: outside space, a place grow food and a place to socialise.
The enterprise was aptly named ‘Vacant Lot’ and during the programme’s 3 year tenure, they created 21 new growing sites in inner city housing estates. The construction method was simple: using large builder’s bags and timber battens to create planters and seating, the process could be low cost with a quick turnaround. Although the programme finished in 2012, Vacant Lot went back a year later to survey all the sites to get feedback and learn what worked and what didn’t.
The benefits were predictably positive with the survey returning feedback like this:
‘Different nationalities… communicating and getting together… When I walk by the plot and see neighbours, I visit.’ (Stamford Hill Estate, 2013)
But for me, the question I would have loved to seen answered in Vacant Lot’s feedback was: is it going to continue? The project was successful in it’s goals of bringing communities together and opening up perspectives about how we can source our food. But they weren’t alone in starting the project. Namely, they had benefit of a partnership with Groundwork - a UK charity who specialise in supporting community initiatives that create a greener future for disadvantages neighbourhoods. Vacant Lot also had funding from a host of groups including Big Lottery and Comic Relief. It was clear to many that Vacant Lot were on to something, but they decidedly finished the programme in 2012.
So why finish after 3 seemingly successful years..? Well it doesn’t take an accountant to figure out that the scheme probably isn’t financially sustainable without public funding or continued donations. That also doesn’t take into account the time it takes to set up these ventures and build the relationships needed with the local communities to which they’re trying to assist. Although these issues probably were at the forefront of Ulrike Steven’s (founder of Vacant Lot) mind when she closed the programme in 2012, I wonder if there wasn’t something else they might have missed along the way.
If you want to find bountiful examples of communities with resilience who are carving a path for themselves, then look no further than my former city of residence, Glasgow. Although the city’s moto of ‘People make Glasgow’ has long entered the Meme hall of fame for the wrong reasons, there is an undeniable truth to the aphorism. Coincidentally, the source of yet another guerrilla growing space in this city once again starts with the actions of an architect. A former tutor of mine at the Macintosh School of Architecture, and founder of Baxendale Studio, Lee Ivett now heads up the undergraduate Architecture course in Central Lancashire University. However, in parts of Glasgow, Lee is known better by the community for getting his hands dirty in meaningful way.
To start with, let’s look at the latter - the Woodlands Community Garden in Glasgow’s West End. In 2010, Ivett lived across the road from a derelict ‘gap site’ on West Princess Street, which was crying out for attention. Together with other local residents, the unused site was turned into a space for the community with raised beds that residents could occupy to grow fruit and veg. Since its inception, the space has thrived, and evolved in a number of ways. You could argue that the key to the success was the support of the Woodlands Community group - a Development Trust with the aim of improving the lives of the local community. But for me, having committee-like organisations oversee a growing space doesn’t always equate to longevity in these gardens. The key for Woodlands was continued community involvement…
Often in a community garden, the physical spaces for growing: the raised beds or sowed patches of soil are completely shared amongst the community, as is the responsibility to manage the site. But there in lies the grey area. Who decides what to grow, where to grow it, and how to divide up the fruits of the labour? …Most of the time it’s a committee of some sort: usually the people who are the most enthusiastic with the most amount of time to lend and at the beginning of the project. Resident’s on the periphery, stay on the periphery in these cases, and the ‘community’ garden is tended by a small number of well meaning individuals with occasional volunteer support.
Here’s where the Woodlands Community Garden stands apart. At this Glasgow garden each year, around 50 households grow their own fruit, vegetables and herbs in the garden’s raised beds. This kind of set up addresses two factors that can often lead to the under-utilisation of community gardens:
1. It offers individual residents the opportunity to claim a space to grow their own food.
(Something that most communities shy away from in order to avoid territorial squabbles over various patches. However when an individual has responsibility for a space to grow, they tend to feel more of an obligation to make use of it, and therefore the raised beds are always well harvested)
2. It offers a yearly rotation on use of the raised beds.
(This is can often be the antithesis of the world of allotments, where tenancies tend to be lifelong! However, when there’s a chance that someone else might be using your space the following year, residents tend to make the most of their raised bed while they have it. In the long term, this means that a far wider portion of the community get exposure to the benefits of eating food grown on their own patch of dirt.)
Aside from these fundamental principals, the Woodlands Community Garden is thriving is a number of ways. It focuses its volunteer efforts to 2 days a week for general site maintenance, whilst the garden is open at all times as a place to unwind of socialise. In 2014, the ‘Woodlands Community Cafe’ was established on site which now runs cookery workshops and volunteer training programmes, as well as offering a selection of food on a ‘pay what you can’ basis. In 2016, Glasgow City Council granted a long-term lease on the site after it had been empty since the 1990s, which meant a year later, they completed construction of the ‘Woodlands Community Meeting Room’. This new building is open for rent to any group or company in Glasgow in need of space - providing